GIRA - General Insurance Reserving Application

An app' to accompany the book.


Individual cohort BF assumptions
Tail factor
CV of tail factor(%)
Sigma for tail


Notice and License for GIRA - General Insurance Claims Reserving Application


This application is an accompaniment to the book, “Claims Reserving in General Insurance” by David Hindley, and is intended to provide practical, hands-on working examples of some of the subjects covered in the book.

The application is intended solely as a learning aid, and should not be used in any particular application without independent testing and verification by the person making the application. In addition, the application owner and publisher of the book are not offering this application as actuarial, statistical or other professional services advice, and no reliance should be placed on it as such.

For these reasons, we make no warranties, express or implied, that the application worked examples, software code, data, mathematical formulations, or other information or results produced by this application are free of error, or that they are consistent with industry standards, or that they will meet the requirements for any particular application.

THE APPLICATION OWNER AND PUBLISHER EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF SATISFACTORY QUALITY, MERCHANTABILITY AND OF FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, even if the application owner or publisher has been advised of a particular purpose, and even if a particular purpose is indicated in the book, on the associated website or in the application.

The application owner and publisher also disclaim all liability for direct, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages that result from any use of the application, worked examples, software code, data, mathematical formulations, or other information or results produced by this application.

Neither the application owner nor the publisher make any representation regarding whether use of the application, worked examples, software code, data, mathematical formulation, results produced by this application or other information might infringe others' intellectual property rights, including US and foreign patents. It is the application user's sole responsibility to ensure that he or she is not infringing any intellectual property rights, even for use which is considered to be experimental in nature.

By using this application or any of the worked examples, software code, data, mathematical formulations or other information, the application user has agreed to assume all liability for any damages arising from or relating to such use, regardless of whether such liability is based on intellectual property or any other cause of action, and regardless of whether the damages are direct, indirect, incidental, consequential, or any other type of damage. The application owner and publisher disclaim any such liability.

Nothing in the foregoing paragraphs is intended to limit or restrict liability that cannot be lawfully limited or restricted.

Copyright License


Copyright 2017 David Hindley.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. If you do not already have a copy of this license, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA or see here.

This shows a list of the R packages installed on the server, showing their version number. Only a subset of these are used in this application.
Please contact the application author if you believe any of these should be updated.

Source code

The source code for this application is available in a Github repository, available here.

This is made available as free open-source software, subject to the Notice and License shown in the Github repository.

If you have suggestions for changes to the existing source code, or wish to contribute additional modules, please do so via the repository.

To contact the author of this application with any questions, comments or feedback, please send an email to: dhindley@djhindley.com